A fast developing technology called quantum computing uses the principles of quantum physics to solve issues that are too complicated for conventional computers.

A technology that scientists had only just begun to envisage thirty years ago is now made accessible to hundreds of thousands of developers thanks to IBM Quantum. Our engineers consistently produce superconducting quantum processors with increased power along with significant software and quantum-classical orchestration advancements. The world-changing speed and capacity of quantum computing are being advanced by this effort.

These devices differ significantly from the traditional computers that have been in use for more than 50 years. Here is an introduction to this revolutionary technology.

**Why do we need quantum computers?**

Supercomputers are used by scientists and engineers when they are faced with challenging tasks. These are enormous classical computers that frequently have thousands of cores for both the CPU and GPU. However, some types of issues are difficult for even supercomputers to solve.

When a supercomputer struggles, it’s often because the large classical machine was given a challenging problem to answer. Complexity is commonly to blame for the failure of traditional computers. Multiple variables that interact in intricate ways are considered complex problems. Because there are so many different electrons interacting with one another, modelling the behaviour of individual atoms in a molecule is a challenging task. It is difficult to determine the best paths for a few hundred tankers in a vast transportation network.

The 1980s saw the emergence of the quantum computing field. It was found that some computational issues could be solved more effectively by quantum algorithms than by classical ones.

Quantum computing has the capacity to sort through enormous quantities of options and identify potential answers to difficult issues. Quantum computers use qubits, as opposed to classical computers, which store information as bits with either 0s or 1s. Qubits store information in a multidimensional quantum state that interacts with 0 and 1.

The study of quantum computing is concerned with the creation of computer-based technologies based on the ideas of quantum theory. The nature and behaviour of matter and energy at the quantum (atomic and subatomic) level are explained by quantum theory. To carry out particular computational operations, quantum computing employs a combination of bits. All of them perform significantly better than their classical equivalents. The creation of quantum computers represents a significant advance in computing power, providing enormous performance advantages for particular application cases. For instance, simulations are one area where quantum computing thrives.

The capacity of bits to exist in several states simultaneously gives the quantum computer a large portion of its processing capability. They are capable of carrying out tasks using a mix of 1s, 0s, and both a 1 and a 0 at once. The Los Alamos National Laboratory, MIT, IBM, Oxford University, and Oxford University are some of the current quantum computing research hubs. Additionally, cloud providers have started to allow developers access to quantum computers.

The first step towards quantum computing was identifying its constituent parts. Paul Benioff of Argonne National Labs first proposed the concept of a quantum mechanical computer in 1981. It is widely acknowledged that David Deutsch from Oxford University came up with the crucial concept for research on quantum computing. He started to consider if it may be possible to create a computer that only followed quantum laws in 1984, and a few months later he published a ground-breaking study on the subject.

**Features of Quantum Computing**

Quantum computing is based on two aspects of quantum physics: superposition and entanglement. They enable quantum computers to perform tasks at rates that are exponentially faster than those of traditional computers while using a fraction of the energy.

**Superposition : **According to IBM, the remarkable thing about a qubit is not what it is but what it can do. A qubit superpositionally stores the quantum information it contains. This describes a synthesis of all qubit configurations that are feasible. “Superposition of qubit groups can produce intricate, multidimensional computational spaces. In these places, complex issues can be represented in novel ways.”

**Entanglement :**

The power of quantum computing depends on entanglement. It is possible to make qubit pairs entangled. As a result, the two qubits are said to be in a single state. In such a condition, altering one qubit has a direct and predictable impact on the other.

Quantum algorithms are created to benefit from this connection in order to address challenging issues. Adding qubits results in an exponential increase in computing power and capability, whereas doubling the number of bits in a traditional computer twice its processing power.

**Decoherence : **When the quantum behaviour of qubits decays, decoherence takes place. Vibrations or variations in temperature can abruptly disrupt the quantum state. Qubits may lose their superposition as a result, which could lead to computation mistakes. Qubits must be safeguarded against this interference using things like vacuum chambers, supercooled refrigerators, and insulation.

**Why Quantum Computing Is Important?**

Some of our current systems might be destroyed by quantum computers. From email to online retail transactions, the RSA cryptosystem offers the security framework for a variety of privacy and communication protocols. In order to maintain current standards, it is assumed that no one has the processing power to evaluate every method for decrypting data once it has been encrypted. However, a mature quantum computer could test every method in a couple of hours.

It is important to note that quantum computers have not yet reached this stage of development and won’t for some time, but if and when a sizable, reliable device is created, its unmatched capacity for factoring enormous numbers would essentially destroy the RSA cryptosystem. Fortunately, the technology is still in the future, and researchers are working on it.

**Why Quantum Computing Is Important?**

Some of our current systems might be destroyed by quantum computers. From email to online retail transactions, the RSA cryptosystem offers the security framework for a variety of privacy and communication protocols. In order to maintain current standards, it is assumed that no one has the processing power to evaluate every method for decrypting data once it has been encrypted. However, a mature quantum computer could test every method in a couple of hours.

It is important to note that quantum computers have not yet reached this stage of development and won’t for some time, but if and when a sizable, reliable device is created, its unmatched capacity for factoring enormous numbers would essentially destroy the RSA cryptosystem. Fortunately, the technology is still in the future, and researchers are working on it.

**The Future of Quantum Computing **

Even though quantum computing is still in its picky, disagreeable stage, business interests have jumped in.

At the 2020 Consumer Electronics Show, IBM declared that its ‘Q Network’ had grown to include more than 100 businesses and organisations. Now, partners include Mercedes-Benz owner Daimler AG, Anthem Health, and Delta Air Lines.

Some of those collaborations are dependent on quantum computing’s potential for molecular simulation. For example, Daimler is expecting that technology will eventually lead to a better technique to make batteries for electric vehicles.

However far off it may still be, agreements between quantum computing startups and top pharmaceutical firms like those formed by ProteinQure and AstraZeneca and 1QBit indicate to the potential of quantum molecular modelling for drug discovery.

To calculate “the molecular characteristics of a novel molecule,” researchers would require millions of qubits, stated theoretical physicist Sabine Hossenfelder in the Guardian. But at least the conceptual foundation is there. Donohue added, “Since a quantum computer already understands quantum mechanics, I can basically write in how another quantum system would behave and utilize that to repeat the other one.

However, there are difficulties with quantum computing that go beyond hardware. Greg Kuperberg, a mathematician at the University of California in Davis, is eager to emphasize that the “magic” of quantum computing lies in algorithmic advancements, “not speed.”